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Causes of ectopic pregnancy

Causes of ectopic pregnancy

Prevention/ delay in migration of the fertilized ovum into the uterine cavity such as pelvic inflammatory disease has higher risk of ectopic pregnancy because loss of cilia of the lining epithelium and impairment of muscular peristalsis and  narrowing of the tubal lumen.

Iatrogenic causes such as contraception failure such as intrauterine device, sterilization operation, the use of progesterone only pill, intra-pelvic adhesions following pelvic surgery and assisted reproductive technique.

Other causes such as prior induction abortion because infection after abortion or childbirth is likely to cause peri-tubal inflammation. The development defects of the tube and trans-peritoneal migration of the ovum.

What is ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that implants outside the uterine cavity or womb. It occurs in 1% to 2% of all pregnancies and of these about 98% implants in the fallopian tube. Other sites for ectopic pregnancy include abdominal cavity, ovaries, cornu of the uterus and cervix.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy

After many women become pregnant, the first reaction is to worry about whether they are pregnant or not, so what are the symptoms of ectopic pregnancy? Can these symptoms be used to judge whether it is an ectopic pregnancy?

  1. Acute ectopic pregnancy

A classic triad of ectopic pregnancy such as amenorrhoea, abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. The women usually experienced amenorrhoea for a short period of 6 to 8 weeks. Abdominal pain because the distension of the tube by blood, colic of the tubal muscles and irritation. They will have vaginal bleeding with or without expulsion the product of conception. In addition, nausea, vomiting and syncopal attack are also associated with acute ectopic pregnancy.

2. Unruptured ectopic pregnancy

Delayed period or spotting with features suggestive of pregnancy. Discomfort on one side of the flank which is continuous.

3.Old ectopic pregnancy

Old ectopic pregnancy is characterized by irregular vaginal bleeding, paroxysmal abdominal pain, accessory masses, and low fever. Low fever is caused by the process of blood absorption in the abdominal cavity. If it is complicated by secondary infection, it will show high fever.

The consequences of ectopic pregnancy

  1. Tubal pregnancy miscarriage usually occurs at 8-12 weeks of gestation. If the entire embryo sac is completely detached from the fallopian tube and discharged into the abdominal cavity.
  2. The fallopian tube is rich in blood, and the rupture causes rapid and massive bleeding. Shock can occur if the treatment is not timely.
  3. The fallopian tube becomes pregnant or ruptured, and the embryo sac is discharged from the fallopian tube into the abdominal cavity or broad ligament.

How to prevent ectopic pregnancy

There’s no way to prevent an ectopic pregnancy, but here are some ways to decrease your risk:

  1. Limiting the number of sexual partners and using a condom during sex helps to prevent sexually transmitted infections and may reduce the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease.
  2. Don’t smoke. If you do, quit before you try to get pregnant.

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